Nanorobots are molecular machines that are engineered to the molecular level to assist humans in carrying out complex functions. Nanorobots are popular in the medical field where these bots can be used in medication and treatment of defected parts organs and DNA. They can protect and maintain the body against bacteria, and can also use various components to function like power, communication, control, and sensors.
Biomaterials and photolithography can be used to make nanodevices for patient diagnosis and drug delivery. Surgical nanobots enter the body through cavities and vascular systems. Surgeries are pre-programmed or controlled by a human surgeon. These nanobots functions are to identify and eliminate harmful bacteria and carry out diagnosis by nanomanipulation that is connected to a computer externally to receive coded ultrasounds signals which will be decoded by a surgeon. Scientists from Hong Kong have developed a group of nanoparticles that will function as a group following bees like pattern to move together. The paramagnetic nanoparticles can be guided through a magnetic field, and the swarm can be used to form groups in various shapes and configurations. All these tests are still under development and expected to serve humanity in the future.
Nanorobots can also be useful in altering DNA to treat genetic disorders. Gene therapy requires correcting irregularity in DNA and protein sequence. The effort from the development community has improved the nanobot’s motion control, power, and diverse functions. The nano swarms can travel through complex routes, perform diagnosis, transmit images, retrieve samples and also deliver medicines directly to the required part. Nanobots don’t need cables, batteries or any complex power sources to power them. The human body itself often powers the bots, or it is powered during launch. Bots will disintegrate once the mission is complete and it is biodegradable. The use of bots is still limited to laboratory studies. There are studies conducted to power bots through water and gastric acids, and it is also designed to carry even heavier payloads. Application of nanotechnology is inevitable in the future due to its adverse effects. Vigorous tests and study will make it work to its full potential and pave the way for safer bio treatments.