Technology Application in Genetic Diagnostics

Technology Application in Genetic Diagnostics

Healthcare Tech Outlook | Tuesday, January 05, 2021

Probes may be used to detect regular or mutant DNA segments. A part of DNA that has been cloned or replicated becomes a labeled probe when a radioactive atom or fluorescent dye is applied to it.

FREMONT, CA: Genes are segments of Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) that carry a particular protein code that functions in one or more groups of cells in the body. Genetic diagnostic technology is developing quickly. Various techniques can be used to copy portions of the gene or to track gene changes. A few include:

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a laboratory procedure that can generate several versions of the gene or fragments of the gene, making it much simpler to study the gene. A particular portion of DNA, such as a specific gene, may be copied (amplified) in a laboratory. Starting with a single DNA molecule, about a billion copies are created at the end of 30 duplicates (only a few hours later).

Gene Probe

A gene probe can be used to identify a small part of a gene (a section of the gene's DNA) or a whole gene in a specific chromosome. Probes may be used to detect regular or mutant DNA segments. A part of DNA that has been cloned or replicated becomes a labeled probe when a radioactive atom or fluorescent dye is applied to it. The examination will scan for and bind to its DNA mirror-image segment. The marked probe can then be identified using advanced microscopic and photographic techniques. A variety of diseases may be identified before and after birth with gene probes. In the future, gene probes are expected to be used to screen individuals with several significant genetic diseases simultaneously.

Oligonucleotide Arrays

The oligonucleotide is a sequence of bases; (nucleotides). Perhaps these chains are absent or have redundant DNA segments. An oligonucleotide sequence is used to classify deleted or duplicated DNA fragments of particular chromosomes. In the oligonucleotide collection, a person's DNA is linked to a reference genotype (a specific set of genes or genetic makeup) using various oligonucleotide probes. A fluorescent dye is applied to the oligonucleotide probes, as are specific gene probes. If a section is absent, the probes can sense a reduced quantity of fluorescent dye. If the section is duplicated or tripled, the probes can sense an elevated amount of fluorescent dye. These probes can be used to test the whole genotype.

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